Bone cancer

Bone cancer is a malignancy that comes from the cells that make up the bones of the body. This is also known as bone cancer. Primary bone tumors are tumors that occur in the bone tissue itself and can be (bone cancer) benign or malignant. Benign tumors (non-cancerous) in the bones are more common than bone cancers. When bone cancer is found, it is either bone (as in primary bone cancer) or spread to the bones after appearing elsewhere (malignant tumor or secondary cancer that has spread to the bones). In fact, when cancer is detected in the bone, it is most often a malignant tumor that begins in another organ or part of the body and then spreads to the bone. This type of cancer that has spread to the bone is called the place where the original cancer started (for example, metastatic prostate cancer that spread to the bones). Breast, prostate and lung cancer are among the types of cancer that usually extend to the bones at an advanced stage. Often, cancer in the bone can begin as a primary cancer of the bone, and this is the actual bone cancer. Primary and metastatic bone cancer is often treated differently and has a different diagnosis.

Bone cancer

There are other cancers that can start in the bones even if they are not considered real bone cancer. Lymphoma is a cancer of the cells responsible for the immune response to the body. Lymph nodes usually begin in the lymph nodes, but sometimes start in the bone marrow. Multiple myeloma is another cancer of the immune cells that usually begins in the bone marrow. These tumors are not considered primary cancers of bones because they do not come from real bone cells.

a. Risk Factors

Approximately 2,300 cases of bone cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year. Primary bone cancers are not common and represent less than 1% of all cancers. Bone cancer is more common in children and young adults. Cancer in the bones of the elderly has usually spread to the bones after they have originated in another part of the body.

The risk factors for bone cancer are the following:

  • Previous treatment with radiation therapy
  • Former chemotherapy with drugs known as alkylating agents
  • The mutation in a gene is known as the retinal gene (RBI) or other gene
  • Associated disorders, such as hereditary retinal tumor, Paget’s bone disease, Le Fraumeni syndrome, Thompson-Routhmund syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, and Blackfan anemia.
  • Metal implants for the repair of front fractures

b. Symptoms

Pain is the most common symptom of bone cancer. Bone pain may develop initially at certain times of the day, often at night or with physical activity. Pain tends to progress and worsens over time. Sometimes, pain may exist for years before an injured person requests treatment. Sometimes bone cancer is detected by mistake when X-rays or imaging studies are performed for another reason. Sometimes you feel lump, swelling or lumps around the bone cancer area. Bone fractures can also occur at the site of bone cancer because of weak underlying bone structure. Symptoms are often caused by pressure or disruption of nerves and blood vessels in the affected area. These symptoms can include numbness, tingling, tenderness or low blood flow outside the tumor site, causing cold hand or foot with weak or absent impulse.

Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is one of several types of cancer caused by the tissue of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which the cells develop abnormally and have the ability to spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms include blood in the urine, painful urination, and low back pain. Risk factors include smoking, family history, prior radiation therapy, recurrent bladder infections, and exposure to certain chemicals. The most common type of cancer is transition cells. Other species include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis is usually made by cystoscopy with tissue biopsies. Cancer stages are usually determined by medical images, such as computed tomography and bone examination. Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer, may include a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Surgical options may include transurethral resection, partial or complete removal of the bladder, or urinary incontinence. The typical survival rates for five years in the United States are 77%.

Bladder cancer

a. Symptoms

Bladder cancer mainly causes blood (redness) in the urine. This blood in the urine can be visible to the naked eye (macroscopic hematuria) or can only be detected by microscopy (microscopic hematuria). Hematuria is the most common symptom of bladder cancer. It occurs in approximately 80-90% of patients.

Other possible symptoms include pain when urinating, frequent urination or the urge to urinate without being able to do so. These signs and symptoms are not specific to bladder cancer and are also the result of non-cancerous conditions, such as prostate infections, excessive bladder
inflammation, and bladder inflammation. There are many other causes of hematuria, such as bladder or gallstones, ureters, infections, kidney disease, kidney cancer and vascular malformations.

Patients with advanced disease refer to pelvic or bone pain, edema of the lower extremities or pain in the wings. Rarely, a clear mass can be detected during a physical examination.

b. Causes

Smoking is the main contributor to bladder cancer. In the majority of the population, smoking is associated with more than half of the cases of bladder cancer in men and a third in women, but these rates have decreased in recent years in Europe and America. There is an almost linear relationship between the duration of smoking (in years), the years of the fagots and the risk of bladder cancer. A smoking risk of around 15 cigarettes per day can be observed (which means that those who smoke 15 cigarettes a day are almost the same as those who smoke 30 cigarettes a day). Quitting smoking reduces risk, but ex-smokers are more likely to be at higher risk of bladder cancer than nonsmokers. Passive smoking is not proven.

30% of tumors in bladder can be the result of occupational exposure to carcinogens such as benzidine and Naphthylamine, which are also found in the smoke of cigarettes, also shows an increased risk of bladder cancer. Occupations at risk include bus drivers, rubber workers, automotive mechanics, leather workers (including footwear), blacksmiths, machine builders and mechanics. It is also believed that hairdressers are at risk due to frequent exposure to permanent hair dyes.

In addition to these major risk factors, there are also many other adjustable factors that are less potent (i.e. 10 to 20% higher risk) associated with bladder cancer, for example, obesity. Although these may be considered minor effects, it is still possible to reduce the risks in the general population by limiting the spread of a series of smaller risk factors.

Bile duct Cancer

Bile duct cancer is a rare disease where malignant cells (cancer) form in the bile ducts. A network of tubes, called channels, connects the liver, gallbladder and small intestine. This network begins in the liver, where many small channels accumulate in yellow (the fluid made by the liver to break down fat during digestion). Small channels join to form left and right hepatic ducts that leave the liver. The two channels meet outside the liver and form the common hepatic duct. The cystic duct connects the gall bladder to the common hepatic duct. The liver yolk passes through the hepatic ducts, the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct and is stored in the gallbladder. When food is digested, the bile is stored in the gall bladder and passes through the cystic duct to the bile duct and the small intestine. Bile duct cancer is also called cholangiocarcinoma.

Bile duct Cancer

There are two types of cancer of the bile ducts:

  •  Intrahepatic bile duct cancer
  •  Extrahepatic bile duct cancer

a. Symptoms

The signs of cancer in the common bile duct include jaundice and abdominal pain. These signs and symptoms can be instigated by cancer of the bile ducts or other conditions. Check with your medic if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or white eyes).
  • Dark urine.
  • Color of mud stool
  • Stomach ache
  • Fever.
  • Itchy skin
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Weight loss for an unknown reason.


Skin cancer

Skin cancers are cancers that come from the skin. This is due to the development of abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. There are three main types of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous skin cancer and skin cancer. The first two are less common skin cancer and are known as non-melanoma (NMSC). Basal cell carcinoma develops slowly and can damage surrounding tissues, but is unlikely to spread to remote areas or cause death. It often appears as a painless area of the skin, which may shine with small blood vessels that overreact or may appear as an elevated area with an ulcer. Scarf skin cancer is more susceptible to proliferation. It usually appears as a solid mass with crusty top, but can also form a sore. Melanoma is the most aggressive. Signs include moles that changes in size, shape, color, irregular edges, have more than one color, itching or bleeding.

a. Symptoms

There are several different indications of skin cancer. These include variations in the skin that do not heal ulcers of skin, skin discoloration and changes in existing moles, rough edges in the mole and extended mole.

b. Types of Skin Cancer

  • Basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma (BSK) usually presents a pearly, smooth, raised form on sun-exposed skin of the head, neck, or shoulders. Sometimes small blood vessels (called telangitasias) can be seen inside the tumor. In general, scabies and bleeding in the middle of the tumor is often mistaken for an ulcer that does not heal. This type of skin cancer is the less dangerous and with appropriate treatment can be completely eradicated, often without leaving scars.
  • Skin cancer of the scalpel: Carcinoma of the skin (doubt) is usually red, scaly, thick spot on exposed sun skin. Some nodules are solid and fixed with a form of keratocanthomas. Bleeding and bleeding may occur. When there is no doubt, it can become a big block. Squamous cells are the second most common skin cancer. It’s dangerous, but not as dangerous as skin cancer.
  • Melanoma: Most skin cancers consist of several colors ranging from brown to black. Some melanomas are pink, red or fleshy. These skin cancers are called melanocytes and
    tend to be more aggressive. Early warning signs of malignant melanoma include changes in the size, shape, color or height of the mole. Other signs are the emergence of a new mall during puberty or pain, itching, ulceration, redness of the site or bleeding on the site.

c. Causes

  • UV exposure is the main environmental cause of skin cancer.
  • Tobacco
  • HPV infections increase the risk of squamous cell cancer of the skin.
  • Certain genetic syndromes including congenital malformations (moles) characterized by the presence of moles (moles or moles) of variable size present at birth or appearing within 6 months of birth. Nevi over 20 mm (3/4 “) have a greater risk of becoming cancerous.
  • Chronic wounds are not therapeutic. Margolin’s ulcer is called based on its appearance and can develop scaly skin cancer.
  • Ionizing radiation, such as X-rays, environmental carcinogens, synthetic UV rays (e.g. tanning beds), aging and the light color of the
  • Now people who use synthetic tanning pools are putting the most at risk of skin cancer. Alcohol consumption, especially the excessive consumption of alcohol increases the risk of sunburn. The use of many immunosuppressive drugs increases the risk of skin cancer. Cyclosporin A, a calcinurine inhibitor, for example, increases the risk of about 200-fold and azathioprine about 60-fold.

Blood cancer

Blood Cancer, which is also commonly known as leukemia, is a class of cancers that often initiate in the bone marrow and spread to a huge number of abnormal white blood cells. White blood cells are not fully developed and are called blasts or leukemia cells. Symptoms include bleeding, bruising, feeling tired, temperature, and an amplified risk of injury. Lack of normal blood cells is a main reason of these symptoms. Diagnosis is typically done by blood tests or bone marrow biopsy.

Blood Cancer

a. Symptoms

The most common symptoms in children are bruising, pale skin, fever, enlarged spleen or liver.

Damage to the bone marrow, by the displacement of normal bone marrow cells with a larger number of immature white blood cells, leads to the lack of platelets, which are important in the blood clotting process. This means that people who suffer from leukemia can easily get bruised, overheated or develop a specific hemorrhage (emphysema).

White blood cells, which are involved in the fight against pathogens, can be suppressed or dysfunctional. This can prevent the patient’s immune system from fighting a simple infection or start attacking other cells in the body. Because of Leukemia the immune system stops functioning normally; some patients have periodic infections, ranging from infected tonsils, mouth ulcers, or diarrhea to life-threatening pneumonia or adaptable infections.

Finally, a lack of red blood cells causes anemia, which can cause breathlessness and paleness.
Some patients suffer from other symptoms, such as feeling sick, fever, chills, night sweats, feeling tired and other flu-like symptoms. Some patients suffer from nausea or fullness due to enlarged liver and spleen. This can lead to unintended weight loss. Injured explosions can accumulate and become bloated in the liver or lymph nodes that cause pain and nausea.

If leukemia cells have invaded the central nervous system, neurological symptoms (including headaches) may occur. Unusual neurological symptoms such as migraines, seizures or coma may occur as a result of brain pressure. All symptoms associated with leukemia can be attributed to other diseases. Therefore, leukemia is still diagnosed by medical tests.

The word leukemia, which means “white blood”, is derived from the characteristic of high white blood cells occurring in the most severely affected patients before treatment. A large number of white blood cells appear when a blood sample is examined under a microscope, and extra white blood cells are often immature or dysfunctional. The excessive number of cells can interfere with the level of other cells, causing an additional imbalance in the number of blood.

Some patients with leukemia do not have a large number of bloods in the normal blood count. This condition is called aleukemia. The bone marrow still contains cancerous white blood cells that disrupt the normal production of blood cells, but remain in the bone rather than entering the bloodstream, where they are visible in the blood test. For leukemia, the number of white blood cells in the blood may be normal or low.

b. Causes

There is no known cause of any of the different types of leukemia. A few known causes, which are not usually factors under the control of the average person, represent relatively few cases. The cause of most cases of leukemia is unknown. Different leukemia may have different causes.

Leukemia, like other cancers, results from mutations in DNA. Some mutations can lead to leukemia by activating tumor genes or disrupting tumor suppressor genes, disrupting regulation of cell death, differentiation, or division. These mutations can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to radiation or carcinogens. Some viruses, such as the human T-lymphocyte virus and some chemicals, including benzene and alkylating agents of chemotherapy for previous malignancies Tobacco is associated with a slight increase in the risk of acute leukemia in adults. Cohort studies and case control have linked exposure to certain petrochemicals and hair dyes to the development of some forms of leukemia. Diet has very little or no effect, although eating more vegetables can provide a small preventive benefit. Viruses have also been associated with some forms of leukemia. For example, human T-lymphocyte virus (Htl-1) causes T-cell leukemia in adults.

Some cases of maternal fetal transmission have been reported (the child has leukemia because his mother had leukemia during pregnancy). Children born to mothers who use fertility drugs to induce ovulation are twice as likely to develop childhood leukemia as other children.

Appendix Cancer

Appendix Cancers are malignant tumors found in the tail of appendix. Gastrointestinal tumors are unusual tumors with malicious potential. Primary lymphoma can occur in the appendix. Breast cancer, colon cancer and tumors of the female reproductive system can be divided into the appendix.

Appendix Cancer

a. Treatment

       Small carcinoids (less than 2 cm) can be treated without malignant features with appendectomy if complete removal is possible. Other cancers and adenocarcinomas may require correct hemicolectomy. Note: The term “carcinoid” is obsolete: these tumors are more accurately called “neurodegenerative tumors”. For more information, see “Neurodegenerative tumors of excess”.

Treatment with Pseudomyxoma Peritonei involves cytoreductive surgery which involves removal of the visible tumor and affected primary organs in the abdomen and pelvis. The peritoneal cavity is implanted with a hot chemical called HEPIC in an effort to eliminate the remaining disease. Surgery may or may not be preceded or followed by intravenous chemotherapy or HIPEC.

Anal Cancer

Anal cancer is a cancer (malignant tumor) that comes from the anus and the distant opening of the digestive system. A separate entity of colorectal cancer is more common. Anal cancer is usually an anal squamous cell carcinoma that occurs near squamocolumnar junction and is often associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. It can be keratinizing or non-keratinizing (Candida). Other types of anal cancer are adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, and sarcoma or skin cancer. According to the data collected from 2004 to 2010, the five-year survival rate in the United States is 65.5%, although individual rates may vary depending on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis and response to treatment.

Anal Cancer

a. Symptoms

Symptoms of anal cancer may include pain or pressure in the anus or rectum, changes in bowel habits, bumps near the anus, rectal bleeding, itching, or discharge. The bleeding can be severe.

b. Risk factors

  • HPV: Examination of tumor tissue for squamous cell carcinoma in patients in Denmark and Sweden showed a high proportion of cancers positive for anal HPV types, which is also associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. In another study, high-risk HPV types, including HPV-16, were detected in 84% of the anal cancer samples examined. According to the study in Denmark and Sweden, it is estimated that 90% of anal cancers are attributable to HPV.
  • Sexual activity: Having multiple sexual partners increases the risk of exposure to HPV. Intimate sex, either male or female, increases the risk of anal cancer in seven due to HPV. People who have anal intercourse with several partners are 17 times more likely to have anal cancer than those who do not.
  • Smoking: Current smokers are more likely to develop anal cancer than non-smokers. Epidemiologist Janet Daling, PhD in the Department of Public Health Sciences of Fred Hutchinson and her team discovered that smoking plays an important role in the development of anal cancer, independently of other factors. Like sexual activity. More than half of the anal cancer patients were current smoking masters at the time of diagnosis, compared to the smoking rate, around 23% among the controls. “Current smoking is an important advocate of this disease,” Daling said. “If you are a current smoker, multiply by the risk of every four, if you are a man or a woman.” They indicated that the underlying mechanism behind smoking and the development of anal cancer is not known, but researchers think that smoking interferes with a process called apoptosis, or the death of programmed cells, which help To eliminate abnormal cells that can turn into cancer from the body Another possibility is that smoking inhibits the immune system, which can reduce the body’s ability to eliminate infections persistent or abnormal cells.

Throat Cancer Treatment

Throat Cancer Treatment is a type of disease in which abnormal cells multiply and divide by an overwhelming majority in the body. These cells form malignant tumors known as tumors. It is said that throat cancer is cancer of the throat, vocal cords, tonsils and pharynx. Throat cancer is often divided into two types: pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. Pharyngeal cancer is formed in the pharynx. It is a hollow tube that runs from the back of the nose to the top of the trachea. Throat cancer is formed in the larynx, which is also your voice box. Throat cancer is relatively rare compared to other cancers. The International Institute of Cancer estimates that 1.1% of adults will be diagnosed with pharyngeal cancer in their lifetime. It is estimated that 0.3% of adults will be diagnosed with throat cancer during their lifetime.

Throat Cancer Treatment

        a.  Types of throat cancer

There are several types of throat cancer. As we know that every type of throat cancers increasesthe production of abnormal cells, the medic needs to find a specific type to decide the most effective action plan. The two main types of throat cancer are:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma cancer: cancer of the throat of flat cells lining the throat. It isthe most common throat cancer in the United States.
  • Adenocarcinoma: cancer of the throat of adenocarcinoma. This type of throat cancer israre.

With these two main types, throat cancer can be divided into two more types. One type of cancer is the pharynx that develops in the neck and throat. This includes:

  • Nasal pharynx cancer (upper throat)
  • Pharyngeal cancer (the middle part of the throat)
  • Lower pharynx cancer (lower part of the throat)

The other type is throat cancer, which affects the larynx or the sound box.

b.  Symptoms

It can be difficult to detect throat cancer in its infancy. Common symptoms of throat cancerinclude:

  • Change your voice
  • Swallowing problems (dysphagia)
  • Lose weight
  • Sore throat
  • Continued need to clear the throat
  • Cough
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes in the nec
  • Wheezing
  • Pain in the ear
  • Hoarseness

Schedule an appointment with your doctor if you have any of these symptoms and do not improve after two to three weeks.

c.  Risk factors

Men are more likely to develop throat cancer than women. Some lifestyle habits increase therisk of throat cancer, which include:

    • Smoking
    • Excessive consumption of alcohol
    • Vitamin A deficiency
    • Exposure to asbestos
    • Bad dental hygiene

Throat cancer is also associated with some types of HPV (HPV) infections. HPV is a sexually transmitted virus. HPV infection is a risk factor for some pharyngeal cancers, according to cancer treatment centers in America.

Throat cancer is also associated with other types of cancer. In fact, some people diagnosed with throat cancer are also diagnosed with cancer of the esophagus, lung and bladder at the same time. It happens because cancer that starts in one part of the body can spread throughout the body over time.