Bladder cancer is one of several types of cancer caused by the tissue of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which the cells develop abnormally and have the ability to spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms include blood in the urine, painful urination, and low back pain. Risk factors include smoking, family history, prior radiation therapy, recurrent bladder infections, and exposure to certain chemicals. The most common type of cancer is transition cells. Other species include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis is usually made by cystoscopy with tissue biopsies. Cancer stages are usually determined by medical images, such as computed tomography and bone examination. Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer, may include a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Surgical options may include transurethral resection, partial or complete removal of the bladder, or urinary incontinence. The typical survival rates for five years in the United States are 77%.
Bladder cancer mainly causes blood (redness) in the urine. This blood in the urine can be visible to the naked eye (macroscopic hematuria) or can only be detected by microscopy (microscopic hematuria). Hematuria is the most common symptom of bladder cancer. It occurs in approximately 80-90% of patients.
Other possible symptoms include pain when urinating, frequent urination or the urge to urinate without being able to do so. These signs and symptoms are not specific to bladder cancer and are also the result of non-cancerous conditions, such as prostate infections, excessive bladder
inflammation, and bladder inflammation. There are many other causes of hematuria, such as bladder or gallstones, ureters, infections, kidney disease, kidney cancer and vascular malformations.
Patients with advanced disease refer to pelvic or bone pain, edema of the lower extremities or pain in the wings. Rarely, a clear mass can be detected during a physical examination.
Smoking is the main contributor to bladder cancer. In the majority of the population, smoking is associated with more than half of the cases of bladder cancer in men and a third in women, but these rates have decreased in recent years in Europe and America. There is an almost linear relationship between the duration of smoking (in years), the years of the fagots and the risk of bladder cancer. A smoking risk of around 15 cigarettes per day can be observed (which means that those who smoke 15 cigarettes a day are almost the same as those who smoke 30 cigarettes a day). Quitting smoking reduces risk, but ex-smokers are more likely to be at higher risk of bladder cancer than nonsmokers. Passive smoking is not proven.
30% of tumors in bladder can be the result of occupational exposure to carcinogens such as benzidine and Naphthylamine, which are also found in the smoke of cigarettes, also shows an increased risk of bladder cancer. Occupations at risk include bus drivers, rubber workers, automotive mechanics, leather workers (including footwear), blacksmiths, machine builders and mechanics. It is also believed that hairdressers are at risk due to frequent exposure to permanent hair dyes.
In addition to these major risk factors, there are also many other adjustable factors that are less potent (i.e. 10 to 20% higher risk) associated with bladder cancer, for example, obesity. Although these may be considered minor effects, it is still possible to reduce the risks in the general population by limiting the spread of a series of smaller risk factors.