Blood Cancer, which is also commonly known as leukemia, is a class of cancers that often initiate in the bone marrow and spread to a huge number of abnormal white blood cells. White blood cells are not fully developed and are called blasts or leukemia cells. Symptoms include bleeding, bruising, feeling tired, temperature, and an amplified risk of injury. Lack of normal blood cells is a main reason of these symptoms. Diagnosis is typically done by blood tests or bone marrow biopsy.
The most common symptoms in children are bruising, pale skin, fever, enlarged spleen or liver.
Damage to the bone marrow, by the displacement of normal bone marrow cells with a larger number of immature white blood cells, leads to the lack of platelets, which are important in the blood clotting process. This means that people who suffer from leukemia can easily get bruised, overheated or develop a specific hemorrhage (emphysema).
White blood cells, which are involved in the fight against pathogens, can be suppressed or dysfunctional. This can prevent the patient’s immune system from fighting a simple infection or start attacking other cells in the body. Because of Leukemia the immune system stops functioning normally; some patients have periodic infections, ranging from infected tonsils, mouth ulcers, or diarrhea to life-threatening pneumonia or adaptable infections.
Finally, a lack of red blood cells causes anemia, which can cause breathlessness and paleness.
Some patients suffer from other symptoms, such as feeling sick, fever, chills, night sweats, feeling tired and other flu-like symptoms. Some patients suffer from nausea or fullness due to enlarged liver and spleen. This can lead to unintended weight loss. Injured explosions can accumulate and become bloated in the liver or lymph nodes that cause pain and nausea.
If leukemia cells have invaded the central nervous system, neurological symptoms (including headaches) may occur. Unusual neurological symptoms such as migraines, seizures or coma may occur as a result of brain pressure. All symptoms associated with leukemia can be attributed to other diseases. Therefore, leukemia is still diagnosed by medical tests.
The word leukemia, which means “white blood”, is derived from the characteristic of high white blood cells occurring in the most severely affected patients before treatment. A large number of white blood cells appear when a blood sample is examined under a microscope, and extra white blood cells are often immature or dysfunctional. The excessive number of cells can interfere with the level of other cells, causing an additional imbalance in the number of blood.
Some patients with leukemia do not have a large number of bloods in the normal blood count. This condition is called aleukemia. The bone marrow still contains cancerous white blood cells that disrupt the normal production of blood cells, but remain in the bone rather than entering the bloodstream, where they are visible in the blood test. For leukemia, the number of white blood cells in the blood may be normal or low.
There is no known cause of any of the different types of leukemia. A few known causes, which are not usually factors under the control of the average person, represent relatively few cases. The cause of most cases of leukemia is unknown. Different leukemia may have different causes.
Leukemia, like other cancers, results from mutations in DNA. Some mutations can lead to leukemia by activating tumor genes or disrupting tumor suppressor genes, disrupting regulation of cell death, differentiation, or division. These mutations can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to radiation or carcinogens. Some viruses, such as the human T-lymphocyte virus and some chemicals, including benzene and alkylating agents of chemotherapy for previous malignancies Tobacco is associated with a slight increase in the risk of acute leukemia in adults. Cohort studies and case control have linked exposure to certain petrochemicals and hair dyes to the development of some forms of leukemia. Diet has very little or no effect, although eating more vegetables can provide a small preventive benefit. Viruses have also been associated with some forms of leukemia. For example, human T-lymphocyte virus (Htl-1) causes T-cell leukemia in adults.
Some cases of maternal fetal transmission have been reported (the child has leukemia because his mother had leukemia during pregnancy). Children born to mothers who use fertility drugs to induce ovulation are twice as likely to develop childhood leukemia as other children.